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Replacing Chemicals with Biology: Phasing out highly hazardous pesticides with agroecology

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By: Meriel Watts with Stephanie Williamson


SECTION A: Why replace Chemicals with Biology?
1. Introduction
1.1. International concern about HHPs
1.2. Reason for the concern about HHPs
1.3. Replacing HHPs with ecosystem approaches to pest management
2. Ecosystem approaches
2.1. International support for ecosystem approaches
2.2. What are ecosystem approaches?
2.3. Which one? Agroecology? Organic? Permaculture? Sustainable Crop Instensification? Climate-Smart? Traditional? IPM
3. Agroecology makes sense: economically, socially and environmentally
3.1. Yoeld increases or yoeld reductions?
3.2. Profitability
3.3. Pesticide reduction
3.4. Resilience in the face of climate change
3.5. Food security and food sovereignty
3.6. Benefits to women
3.7. Other socio-economic and environmental outcomes

SECTION B: How to Replace HHPS with Agroecology
4. Agroecology: Key principles and practies
4.1. Agroecological principles
4.2. Agroecological practicles
5. A global case study: System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
5.1. Main benefits of SRI
5.2. Principles of SRI
5.3. SRI practices
5.4. SRI in Cambodia
6. Agroecology in Asia
6.1. India: Community Managed Sustainable Agriculture
6.2. India: Cultivating paddy without pesticides (Resmi Deepak)
6.3. India: Tamil Nadu Women’s Forum (Aasha Ramesh)
6.4. China: The rice-duck and rice-fish-frog systems
6.5. Philippines: Farmer-led sustainable organic agriculture
7. Agroecology in Africa
7.1. Benin: Producitive and profitable organic cotton (Stephanie Williamson and Davo Simplice Vodouhê)
7.2. Kenya: Push-pull system of pest management
7.3. Sahel regionL Biological control in pearl millet
7.4. Tanzania: Climate adaption
8. Agroecology in Latin America
8.1. Central America and Colombia: Growing coffee without HHPs (Stephanie Williamson)
8.2. Colombia: Agroecological coffee producion (Stephanie Williamson, Juan Guillermo Londono and German Rivero, agronomist)
8.3. Nicaragua: Beneficial forest microorganisms in coffee production (Heather R. Putnam and Stephen R. Gliessman)
8.4. Brazil: Large-scale organics combined with agroforestry
8.5. Costa Rica: reduced pesticide use in vegetables (Ryan E. Galt)
9. Agroecology in the industrialized world
9.1. France: New law to promote agroecology (Peter Crosskey)
9.2. France: Agroecology in a joint farming anterprise
9.3. Europe: Cerea; and legume intercropping (Erik Steen Jensen and Stephenie Williamson)
9.4. USA: M&M Heath Farms, South Idaho
9.5. USA: Alvarez Farms, Washington

SECTION C: The Way Forward
10. National policy-next steps
10.1. A three-step process
10.2. Policies that provide an enabling environment
10.3. Removing the policies that hinder
11. International implications (Marcia Ishii-Eiteman)
11.1. Institutionalizing supportive policies: Role of international actors
11.2. Research, extension and education
11.3. Investing in agroecology: Role of funding agencies and foundations
11.4. Interational abstacles hindering scaling up and scaling out
11.5. Policies to democratize the food system: A requirement for successful transformation to agroecology

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